Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Pluripotent Stem Cell Essay - 1608 Words

A review on â€Å"Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Embryonic and Adult Fibroblast Cultures by Defined Factors†  ¬Stem cells are yet undifferentiated cells, with the potential capability to further divide indefinitely, and the ability to give rise to more specialized cell types. Embryonic stem(ES) cells are of especially great importance due to their pluripotency and hence ability to differentiate to cells of all three germ layers. Due to the great replicative powers of these cells, they may be used to treat degenerative diseases, or injuries to the nervous system. However, as these ES cells are extracted from blastocysts, an ethical dilemma arises, not to mention potential rejection of foreign bodies in patients. Typically, in†¦show more content†¦The 24 candidate genes were then introduced to mouse embryonic fibroblast(MEF); when grown, no single candidate was capable of activating the Fbx15 locus. Conversely when all 24 candidates were expressed Yamanaka and Takahashi were able to obtain multiple G418 resistant colonies. The experiment was repeated, and six colonies were chosen. Out of these six, four displayed morphology and proliferation properties which were highly similar to ES cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR(RTPCR) revealed several ES cell markers, and further analysis provided evidence that it was a combination of some of the 24 factors which induced pluripotency. To find the specific combination required to induce pluripotency, Yamanaka and Takahashi observed the effect of removing certain factors. A total of ten factors were noted to have critical effect on the early growth of cells; removal of any of these ten factors resulted in no colony growth within the first ten days of culturing. Furthermore, when these ten genes were combined, Yamanaka and Takahashi noted that the resulting cells were more similar to ES cells than cells with all 24 factors were transduced. Out of these ten factors, further factors were withdrawn; when factors Oct  ¾ or Klf4 were removed no G418 resistant colonies formed. Moreover, when Sox2 was removed minimal colonies formed. While resistant colonies still formed despite the removal of c-Myc, the colonies had a distorted morphology from regular ES cells (Figure 1). TheShow MoreRelatedInduced Pluripotent Stem Cells Essays1185 Words   |  5 PagesDescribe:- (i) how induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are isolated (ii) how iPSCs can be used to study human development (iii) how iPSCs can be used to model human disease and to develop therapies for degenerative disease i) iPSCs are adult stem cells that have been genetically reprogrammed to behave like the pluripotent stem cells found in embryos, i.e. can differentiate into any cell type in the human body. 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